Frequently Asked Questions

Education City

Education City is a 2,500-acre “multiversity” campus on the western edge of Doha. The campus includes eight universities offering a variety of degree programs, a science and technology park, teaching hospital, medical research center, the Qatar Convention Center, and the Al Jazeera Children’s Channel. The development is part of Qatar National Vision 2030, the country’s plan to transition from a hydrocarbon-based to a knowledge-based economy. The government earmarks 2.8 per cent of gross domestic product towards research and development activities carried out there.

The project...

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Egyptian Emergency Laws

Egypt's Emergency Law was enacted after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981 and was extended multiple times until its dissolution in May of 2011 in the wake of the Arab Spring. However, Emergency Laws have been used prior to 1981, and more recently, were enacted to grant the government and police forces broad rights to arrest and detain individuals deemed to be "threats" to the government, to limit freedoms of assembly, to place limits on residence or travel, as well as the right to try individuals in unmonitored military courts, and rights to monitor and censor publications.... Read more about Egyptian Emergency Laws

Egyptian Emergency Laws

Egypt’s Emergency Law was enacted after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981 and was extended multiple times until its dissolution in May of 2011 in the wake of the Arab Spring. However, Emergency Laws have been used prior to 1981, and more recently, were enacted to grant the government and police forces broad rights to arrest and detain individuals deemed to be “threats” to the government, to limit freedoms of assembly, to place limits on residence or travel, as well as the right to try...

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Egyptian Islamic Revival, The

From the 1970s through the 1990s, Egypt witnessed an Islamic religious revival, a resurgence in the practice and public expression of Islam among a broad spectrum of religious Egyptians, from Islamists to members of Sufi orders, which corresponded with a global revival taking place in the Muslim world. Social support and charity organizations proliferated, and men and women attended Islamic study circles in higher...

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Egyptian Military, The

The Military has been the backbone of Egyptian political power in modern Egypt the largest component of which is the army. The Free Officers revolution and subsequent presidency of Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser created foundations for a modern authoritarian state in which the military is the ruling power in Egyptian politics—albeit not the governing power (thus Egypt is not a military dictatorship). All post-independence leaders, except for...

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Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, The

The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1928 in Egypt by Hassan al-Banna, a schoolteacher and Islamist intellectual who believed that Islam could, and should, adapt to modern contexts. The Brotherhood has been the most important and strongest political opposition force in Egypt, and the largest Islamic organization in the world. The Egyptian government has maintained restrictions on the Muslim Brotherhood since the mid-century, and, despite a brief period following the 2011 ...

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Excommunicate

To officially exclude someone from membership in a Christian sect. 

Failed State

The concept of a Failed State denotes a nation lacking effective government and legal structures. The term was first used in the early 1990s post-Cold War context as western developed nations—especially the United States—sought to empower themselves and the United Nations to intervene in underdeveloped nations guided by principles of democracy, global security, and a human rights agenda. The term lacks a clear definition and has been criticized by some as representing power relations associated with neocolonialism, which ultimately stigmatizes those states to which the term is applied....

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Marcos (1917-1989) was a nationalist president remembered as a corrupt dictator who ushered in an era of political repression and violence. In attaining and holding the presidency, he wielded charisma, vast wealth, political connections among both Filipinos and Americans, military clout, and drew upon the charm of his wife, the former beauty pageant winner Imelda Marcos.

Marcos, an Aglipayan Catholic and later a...

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