Frequently Asked Questions

Fethullah Gülen

Fethullah Gülen (b. 1938) is a prominent Turkish Islamic scholar and founder of the international Gülen Movement, which evolved from the Nur Movement in the 1960s. Gülen stresses education as the vehicle for transforming the contemporary world. Where Said Nursi emphasized personal transformation as a means to effect social change, Gülen looks both to personal transformation and social and political activism, and fully embraces Turkish nationalism—the defining characteristic of which is Islam, not nationality—...

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Filipino First Policy, The

The Filipino First Policy was introduced by nationalist President Carlos García, favoring Philippine economic interests over American interests. The effects of the policy were seen in investment in Philippine industry, the creation of new businesses, and rising local investment in local initiatives. However, the policy was strongly opposed by the United States government and was characterized as pro-communist. The policy was dismantled by pro-American Diosdado Macapagal.

Sources

 Luis H. Francia...

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Friar

A male member of a religious order that originally relied on charitable contributions or alms for their living expenses. The term that represents this type of religious community is mendicant.

Fundamentalist

There are many interpretations of this widely used term.  It is often associated with conservative religious beliefs across traditions but its origins lie in an early twentieth century American Protestant group that published a series of twelve pamphlets entitled The Fundamentals. Following a long tradition of different opinions regarding Biblical interpretation, fundamentalists were responding to new Biblical scholarship that examined the Bible in its historical context. They were also responding to a rise in secularism, including scientific explanations for human origins...

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Gamal 'Abdel Nasser

Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser was the second President of Egypt and a military officer who planned the Free Officers’ Revolution in 1952 which unseated the corrupt Wafd Party and ended British colonialism in Egypt. He was an outspoken nationalist, secularist, and socialist who directed educational, land, and economic reforms. He is also responsible for the enlargement and bureaucratization of the state, the institution of a single-party system, and for the empowerment of state security forces to limit speech, assembly, and other constitutional rights granted to Egyptians.

Following an...

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General 'Abdel Fattah al-Sisi

Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (b. 1954) is an Egyptian general, the Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the Minister of Defense, and the Deputy Prime Minister. He was appointed as Minister of Defense by post-Arab Spring president Muhammad Morsi, though al-Sisi became the most visible leader in the popular military coup that deposed Morsi in 2013. He is widely popular among most Egyptians for restoring secular rule and representative of the surge of nationalism that has swept Egypt since the coup, and is predicted to win May 2014 presidential elections. Al-Sisi has represented himself as... Read more about General 'Abdel Fattah al-Sisi

General Aung San

Aung San (1915-1947) was a nationalist and military figure who is considered the founder of modern Burma. He is the father of Aung San Suu Kyi. At the beginning of WWII, in 1939, he began secret conversations with the Japanese and ultimately collaborated with them in their invasion of Burma. By 1945, however, he turned on the Japanese and helped liberate Burma with the British. Although many in the British government viewed him as a traitor, they ultimately negotiated with him about the future of...

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General Mohamed Farah Aideed

General Mohamed Farah Aideed (d. 1996) was an Italian-trained military leader, often described as a warlord, who played a leading role in the coup against President Siad Barre in 1990. He was a member of the Habr Gidr subclan of the Hawiye, and leader of the United Somali Congress and later Somali National Alliance. Aideed’s clan-based militias comprised one of the major forces in control of parts of Mogadishu and southern Somalia during the civil war, fighting against U.N. and American...

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General ‘Abdel Fattah al-Sisi

‘Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (b. 1954) is an Egyptian general, the Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the Minister of Defense, and the Deputy Prime Minister. He was appointed as Minister of Defense by post-Arab Spring president Muhammad Morsi, though al-Sisi became the most visible leader in the popular military coup that deposed Morsi in 2013. He is widely popular among most Egyptians for restoring secular...

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