Frequently Asked Questions

Yoruba, The

The Yoruba are a diverse set of various tribes that share a common language and culture, who make up about a fifth of Nigeria’s population. The Yoruba are religiously diverse as well, with most following either Christianity or Islam, though traditional indigenous religions are observed by many. The city of Ile-Ife remains an important site for Yoruba cosmology, and is believed to the point of origin for human...

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Young Ottomans, The

The Young Ottomans (YO) was a constitutional reform and Ottoman state opposition movement that was influential in Ottoman politics between 1860 and 1876. The YO were a response to the Ottoman Tanzimat Reforms, which members accused the government of using to cement an autocratic bureaucracy led by the Ottoman elite. Instead, the YO promoted Ottomanism, which replaced loyalty to the sultan with loyalty to the state, attempted to...

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Young Turks, The

The Young Turks emerged prior to the 1908 Revolution as an opposition movement against the autocratic leadership of Sultan Abdulhamid II (d. 1918), and which subsequently governed the Ottoman Empire between 1908 and 1918. The moniker “Young Turks” was given by European onlookers, and elided the true diversity of opposition to Abdulhamid, which included Jews, Albanians, Arabs, and in its early period, ...

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Youth Movements in Egypt

Contributed by Ben Marcus, Harvard Divinity School

Youth movements in Egypt played a key role in orchestrating the uprisings that overthrew Hosni Mubarak on February 11, 2011. It is crucial to note that a number of these youth movements—including Kefaya, the April 6 Movement, and others—began organizing long before 2011 and that some of these movements have attempted to use their popularity to impact the formation of the new government and its policies. The demography of these movements varies...

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Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926) is a Sunni Muslim theologian and one of the most highly respected scholars in the Arabic-speaking world and the wider Muslim world. He is considered by his followers as a moderate thinker and part of the Muslim reformist tradition, continuing the work of early reformists such as Muhammad ‘Abduh and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, though unlike them, he does not argue that Islam must update itself to meet modern needs. Rather, he argues that Islam already provides genuine answers to modern questions. His position is consistent with the wave of revivalism triggered by...

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