North Africa

Sèvres Treaty

The 1920 Sèvres treaty was a pact between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire, officially dismantling the Empire and forcing it to relinquish claims to territories in North Africa and the Middle East. It also recognized independent and/or autonomous areas for Armenia, Kurdistan, and Thracian Greece. Turkish nationalists rejected the treaty, and replaced it in 1923 with the Treaty of Lausanne.


Islamic law, or shari’a, is a series of principles that are interpreted, negotiated, and debated by legal scholars and adapted in the lives of Muslims in order to bring their actions in line with God’s vision for a just and good life. On the everyday level, Islamic law regulates when and how a Muslim prays, what is considered permissible to eat, business transactions, almsgiving, fasting, and so on. For observant Muslims, Islamic law creates the structure, to varying degrees, by which they organize their lives and decisions; shari’a literally means “the way...

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