Aglipayan Church, The

The Independent Philippine Church (IPC) or Aglipayan Church is a popular schismatic Catholic church founded in 1902 by the priest Gregorio Aglipay and Sr. Isabelo de los Yeyes. The schism was a function of the native Filipino clergy’s resentment of Spanish Catholic orders during the late Spanish colonial period, and received early support from some Filipino nationalists as well as American Protestants. Aglipay himself clearly underscored that the schism’s roots were in the treatment...

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Andrés Bonifacio

Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897) was the founder of the Katipunan, a militant nationalist secret society that led the rebellion against Spain. Bonifacio declared Philippine independence in 1896 in the wake of the execution of his hero and mentor José Rizal. He was arrested that year and charged with treason and sedition, and executed in 1897. He is remembered as a nationalist proletariat hero and father of the anti-colonial revolution, alongside Rizal. Like Rizal, he was remembered in celebrations of the...

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Cardinal Jaime Sin

Cardinal Jaime Sin (1928-2005) was the Archbishop of Manila and the most influential Roman Catholic leader in the political and popular opposition against Ferdinand Marcos. Hailing from a family of Chinese mestizos, Jaime Sin was appointed as cardinal in 1976 and remained in the position over the following decades. He remained politically active throughout his career, and was a critical supporter of...

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Catholicism in the Philippines

Since the colonial period, Catholicism has been the cornerstone of Filipino identity for millions in the Philippines. Catholicism rapidly spread during the early years of Spanish colonialism, in part due to a lack of otherwise centralized religious institutions, other than Islam in the south, which might have challenged it. Its close associations with Filipino identity have placed the Catholic Church at the heart of nationalism, social justice, and other movements, while at the same time has been associated with power, elitism, and exploitation at various points in its history.

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Chinese in the Philippines, The

Thousands of Chinese immigrants arrived in the Spanish Philippines to profit from the Galleon Trade, by which goods passed between China and Mexico. Many Chinese assimilated into Filipino society, intermarrying with native Indios and others, as well as with Spaniards. Through success in trade, many acquired farmlands in the 18th and 19th centuries, becoming relatively wealthy, acquiring social status and, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, growing political clout. One such wealthy family was the Cojuangcos, from which president ...

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Christians for National Liberation

Christians for National Liberation (CNL) was the largest organization within the leftist umbrella group, the National Democratic Front, which also included and was led by the Communist Party of the Philippines. Inspired by the social justice imperative of Vatican II and Latin American liberation theology, the CNL was founded by Roman Catholic priest Fr. Edicio de la Torre in response to the imposition of martial law by President ...

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Creole and Mestizo are colonial racial categories referring to children to a Spanish parent and a Filipino or Chinese parent, usually a Spanish father and Filipino or Chinese mother. They were favored during the Spanish colonial period, and often granted opportunities for higher education not afforded to children of two Indios parents. Mestizo families tended to benefit economically and represented the bulk of land-holding elites by the end of the colonial period. Their sons, educated abroad...

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